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The intertwining of telecom, banking, and M2M/IoT produce a new degree of complexity. We hope our COMPRION glossary helps you to get a good overview of all the connected terms, technologies, and concepts.
1G (or 1-G) refers to the first generation of wireless telephone technology (mobile telecommunications). These are the analog telecommunications standards that were introduced in the 1980s and continued until being replaced by 2G digital telecommunications. The main difference between the two mobile telephone systems (1G and 2G), is that the radio signals used by 1G networks are analog, while 2G networks are digital.
2G (or 2-G) is short for second-generation wireless telephone technology. Three primary benefits of 2G networks over their predecessors were: 2G technologies enabled the various mobile networks to provide the services such as text messages, picture messages and MMS. All text messages sent over 2G are digitally encrypted, allowing for the transfer of data in such a way that only the intended receiver can receive and read it. The most successful digital system for 2G is GSM.
3G is the third generation of mobile telecommunications technology. The successor of 2G networks technology supports much higher data transmission rates than 1G and 2G and offers increased capacity so that 3G cell phones can offer subscribers a wide range of data services, such as mobile Internet access and multimedia applications. There are two global and standardized 3G systems: CDMA 2000, used mainly in Americas and Asia, and UMTS (W-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, TD-CDMA) used worldwide, mainly in Europe and China.
The fourth generation of mobile telecommunications technology. A 4G system, in addition to the usual voice and other services of 3G, provides mobile broadband Internet access, for example to laptops with wireless modems, to smartphones, and to other mobile devices. Potential and current applications include amended mobile web access, IP telephony, gaming services, high-definition mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D television, and cloud computing. Two 4G candidate systems are commercially deployed: the mobile WiMAX standard (first used in South Korea in 2007), and the first-release LTE standard (in Oslo, Norway and Stockholm, Sweden since 2009).
Generic term for COMPRION probes, which are capable of running analog simulations and measurements. All electrical signals can be parameterized (current sinks, voltage thresholds, rise and fall times, etc.) and evaluated analogously. The following analog probes are available:
An optional module in COMPRION products that records and displays analog measurement data. It works like an oscilloscope and offers two functionalities:
An application refers to the data, commands, sequences, conditions, mechanisms, algorithms and program codes within a chip card which are needed to operate it within the framework of a particular system.
The seventh layer in the OSI Model. The application layer is the user interface. It is responsible for displaying data and images to the user in a human-recognizable format and to interface with the presentation layer below it.
The basic unit of information in computing and digital communications. A bit can have only one of two values, and may therefore be physically implemented with a two-state device. The most common representation of these values are 0 and 1. The term bit is the abbreviated form of binary digit.
In Single Wire Protocol (SWP), bit streams that do not have the same or rationally related bit rates are synchronized by bit stuffing. The location of the stuffing bits is communicated to the receiving end of the data link, where these extra bits are removed to return the bit streams to their original bit rates or form. Bit stuffing is used to synchronize the channels before multiplexing or to rate-match two single channels to each other.
A unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. These are designated b8 to b1, from the most significant bit (MSB, b8) to the least significant bit (LSB, b1).
The brand name for Interim Standard 95. IS-95 (also known as TIA-EIA-95) is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard by Qualcomm.
It is a 2G mobile telecommunications standard that uses CDMA, a multiple access scheme for digital radio, to send voice, data, and signaling data (such as a dialed telephone number) between handset and cell sites.
A form of multiplexing that allows several transmitters to send information simultaneously over one single communication channel (for example, wireless networks) instead of assigning a specific frequency to each user as it is usual for GSM systems. CDMA encodes individual conversations by random digital sequence. It offers a transmission speed of only up to 14.4 Kbps in its single-channel form and up to 115 Kbps in an eight-channel form.
In ISO/IEC 7816-3, the coding convention determines the representation of logical values by voltages and how a transmitted byte is serialized. For direct convention, a high voltage of 5V (or 3V or 1.8V, respectively) represents a logical 1 and a byte is transmitted beginning with the lower order bit. For inverse convention, 0V represents a logical 1 and the higher order bit of a byte is transferred first. For both conventions, I/O is in high state when no data is transferred. The coding convention used by Device Test Center is displayed as a message in the Info view.
In general, compliance means conforming to a rule, such as a rule, policy, standard, or law. Regulatory compliance describes the goal that organizations aspire to achieve in their efforts to ensure that they are aware of and take steps to comply with relevant laws and regulations.
Conformance testing or type testing is testing to determine whether a product or system conforms with the requirements of a specification, international standard, or regulation. It is often physical testing but may involve chemical testing or requirements for efficiency or interoperability. To aid in this, many test procedures and test setups have been developed, either by the standard's maintainers or external organizations, specifically for testing conformance to standards. Conformance testing is sometimes performed by external organizations, which is sometimes the standards body itself, to give greater assurance of compliance.
Error locating and eliminating with the purpose of identifying and correcting as many software errors as possible.
Also known as equipment under test (EUT) or unit under test (UUT); a term commonly used to refer to a manufactured product undergoing testing. The term DUT is used within the electronics industry to refer to any electronic assembly under test. For example, cell phones coming off an assembly line may be given a final test in the same way as the individual chips were earlier tested. Each device under test is, briefly, the DUT. In COMPRION products, the term implementation under test (IUT) is often used as a synonym.
Also called Multi-File Format 2 (MFF2). Standard format for Machine-to-Machine (M2M) applications. M2M applications have given rise to the possibility of having a Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC) that is embedded in a communication device in such a way that the UICC is not easily accessible or replaceable. The ability to change network subscriptions on such devices becomes problematic, thus necessitating new methods for securely and remotely provisioning access credentials on these embedded UICCs and managing subscription changes from one mobile network operator (MNO) to another.
This technical specification specifies a logical interface that enables contactless applications hosted on the Universal Integrated Circuit Card (UICC). It covers the configuration where the one host is embedded in the UICC which is connected to the host controller embedded in the Contactless front-end (CLF).
FeliCa is an acronym for Felicity Card and was developed by Sony. It is a contactless communication protocol compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 and therefore operating within the proximity distance of 10 cm.
In the context of data transmission protocol, a frame is a sequence of data bits and optional error detection bits with frame delimiters at start and end.
Simultaneous bidirectional data flow.
A standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation (2G) digital cellular networks used by mobile phones. It is the de-facto global standard for mobile communications with over 90% market share, and is available in over 219 countries and territories.
Sequential bidirectional data flow.
A virtual and exact representation of a smart card using only software. Prior to the HCE architecture, NFC transactions were mainly carried out using the Secure Element (SE). HCE enables the following: merchants to offer payment cards solutions more easily through mobile, closed-loop contactless payment solutions, real-time distribution of payment cards and, more tactically, allows for an easy deployment scenario that does not require to change the software inside the terminal.
A logical interface, allowing a Contactless front-end (CLF) to communicate directly with an application processor, multiple secure elements, and RF gates in diverse electronic devices such as cell phones, PDAs, and PC peripherals, allowing fast integration of Near Field Communication (NFC) functionality.
Accessory which enables input of external signals to the COMPRION test tool:
An LED indicates status information of the I/O Probe. Using the included adaptor, the I/O Probe can be connected to the following COMPRION products:
A checklist of the capabilities supported by an NFC implementation. It provides an overview of the features and options of the specifications that are implemented, including the modes of operation that the product supports. The ICS is used to select and parameterize test cases and as an indicator for basic interoperability between different products. An ICS for a protocol is usually known as a Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement (PICS).
An abstract term for the device under test (DUT) (or terminal) with all its parameters. It forms the highest node in the Device Test Center browser which conveniently serves the administration and organization of test cases and monitoring sessions. An IUT may be referenced by more than one test plan.
An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
Computer program that directly executes or performs instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without previously compiling them into machine language.
Module that contains parameters for identifying and authenticating the user to the IP Multimedia Subsystem (IMS).
System used by 3G technologies to enable the convergence of voice, video, data, and mobile network technology by an IP-based infrastructure. IMS is the way to offer Internet services everywhere using cellular technology and fills the gap between cellular and Internet technology.
ISO/IEC 14443 ’Identification cards — Contactless integrated circuit cards — Proximity cards’ is an international standard that defines proximity cards used for identification, and the transmission protocols for communicating with it.
ISO/IEC 18092:2013 defines communication modes for Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP 1) using inductive coupled devices operating at the center frequency of 13.56 MHz for interconnection of computer peripherals. It also defines both the active and the passive communication modes of Near Field Communication Interface and Protocol (NFCIP-1) to realize a communication network using Near Field Communication (NFC) devices for networked products and also for consumer equipment.
ISO/IEC 7816 is an international standard related to electronic identification cards with contacts, especially smart cards, managed jointly by the ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). Part 3 is mostly referenced in the context of card testing, as it is called 'Cards with contacts — Electrical interface and transmission protocols’.
Element of the smart card file system. Stores data records that all have the same fixed length.
In the seven-layer OSI Model of computer networking, the LLC data communication Protocol Layer is the upper sublayer of the Data Link Layer (DLL), which is itself layer 2. The LLC sublayer provides multiplexing mechanisms that make it possible for several network protocols (IP, IPX, Decnet, and Appletalk) to coexist within a multi-point network and to be transported over the same network medium. It can also provide flow control and automatic repeat request (ARQ) error management mechanisms.
The LLC sublayer acts as an interface between the MAC sublayer and the network layer.
Also called 3FF (3rd form factor) or mini-UICC. Micro-SIM cards have the same thickness and contact arrangements as Mini-SIM, but the length and width are further reduced as above.
The micro-SIM was developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) along with SCP, 3GPP (UTRAN/GERAN), 3GPP2 (CDMA 2000), ARIB, GSMA (GSMA SCaG and GSMNA), GlobalPlatform, Liberty Alliance, and the Open Mobile Alliance (OMA) for the purpose of fitting into devices too small for a mini-SIM card.
Invented by NXP Semiconductors. It is the worldwide most used contactless communication protocol within the smart card business. Originally, this protocol was used for ticketing in public transportation. MIFARE is compatible with ISO/IEC 14443 and therefore operating within the proximity distance of 10 cm.
Also called 2FF (2nd form factor) or plug-in SIM. It has the same contact arrangement as the full-size SIM and is normally supplied within a full-size card carrier, attached by a number of linking pieces. This arrangement (defined in ISO/IEC 7810 as ID-1/000) allows such a card to be used in a device requiring a full-size card, or in a device requiring a mini-SIM card after breaking the linking pieces.
Special COMPRION probe for UT3 Platform and Spectro TP whose Analog Probe (APR) devices are pure simulation probes which do not have monitoring capabilities. In turn, the Monitoring Probe is not able to simulate but only to listen in on the signals exchanged between USIM and terminal.
The Monitoring Probe enables watching the voltages on all electrical USIM contacts (VCC, RST, CLK, I/O, SWP, USB) in relation to GND, the current in relation to VCC and the S2 signal of the SWP contact. These signals are available both as logical digital signals and as analog values.
Also called 4FF (4th form factor). It measures 12.3 × 8.8 × 0.67 mm and reduces the previous format to the contact area while maintaining the existing contact arrangements. A small rim of isolating material is left around the contact area to avoid short circuits with the socket. The 0.7 mm thickness of the Nano-SIM is about 15% less than its predecessor. 4FF can be put into adaptors for use with devices taking 2FF or 3FF SIMs.
The industry standard for short distance contactless data exchange using radio signals. The technology is a simple extension of the ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-card standard (contactless card, RFID) that combines the interface of a smart card and a reader into a single device. An NFC device can communicate with both existing ISO/IEC 14443 smart card and readers, as well as with other NFC devices, and is thereby compatible with existing contactless infrastructure already in use for public transportation and payment.
The Near Field Communication (NFC) standards created by NFC Forum specify different data and recording formats. These formats are necessary in order to enable NFC-compliant communication between NFC readers and NFC tags. NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) is a lightweight, binary message format that can be used to encapsulate one or more application-defined payloads of arbitrary type and size into a single message construct.
A dedicated report intended for those users who intend to apply for certification at the NFC Forum. If you want to certify mobile equipment according to NFC Forum specifications, you must submit the required information about the product to be certified, including the Implementation Conformance Statement (ICS), test report, and test plan. The report can be printed, saved and exported in various formats (for example, PDF).
NFC tags are an application of RFID technology. They are limited in their range to only a few inches or almost touching the phone to the tag. This is done deliberately, so that tags have no effect on a phone unless there is a clear user action to 'trigger' the tag. Although phones are usually touched to tags, this does not require any 'docking' or galvanic contact with the tag, so they are still considered to be a contactless technology. When an NFC-capable phone is placed or 'tapped' on a tag, the programmed action is undertaken. This could cause a website to be displayed, the phone switched to silent mode, or many other possible actions.
The Open Mobile Alliance is a standardization body which develops open standards for the mobile phone industry.
A device, previously called an oscillograph and informally known as a scope, is a type of electronic test instrument that allows observation of constantly varying signal voltages, usually as a two-dimensional plot of one or more signals as a function of time. In COMPRION software it is called Analog Scope.
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) Model is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the internal functions of a communication system by partitioning it into abstraction layers. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the ISO, maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1.
The entire data transmission from and to the chip card can be represented by the OSI Model. A distinction is made between the electrical events on the I/O line, the logical sequences of the actual transmission protocols, and the behavior of the overlying application. The behavior and the sequences within and between these layers are specified in various international standards.
The OSI Model is organized into seven layers, three application-oriented, two transport-oriented, and two hardware-oriented.
Various methods of distributing new software updates, configuration settings, and even updating encryption keys to devices like cell phones, set-top boxes, or secure voice communication equipment (encrypted 2-way radios). One important feature of OTA is that one central location can send an update to all the users; who are unable to refuse, defeat, or alter that update, and it applies immediately to everyone on the channel.
Peak-to-peak is the difference between the maximum positive and the maximum negative amplitudes of a waveform. If there is no direct current (DC) component in an alternating current (AC) wave, then the peak-to-peak amplitude is twice the peak amplitude.
A numeric password shared between a user and a system that can be used to authenticate the user to the system.
The lowest or first layer in the OSI Model. This layer transmits the unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium, relates the electrical, optical mechanical, and functional interfaces to the cable, defines how the cable is attached to the network adapter card, and defines data encoding and bit synchronization.
In telecommunications, a protocol is a system of digital rules for data exchange within or between computers. In computer science, when data is exchanged through a computer network, the rules system is called a network protocol.
A structured document which asserts which specific requirements are met by a given implementation of a protocol standard. It is often completed as a record of formal protocol conformance test results, and COMPRION test systems machine-author PICS as output. Potential buyers or users of the implementation can consult the PICS to determine if it meets their requirements.
The generic term for readers within ISO/IEC 14443. The PCD emits an electromagnetic field and models all requests on the carrier frequency. All communication is initiated by the PCD and its range is up to 10 cm (proximity).
Technology that identifies objects or persons with the aid of electromagnetic radiation. The RFID system mostly consists of two parts: There is a transponder with a unique code on one side and on the other side there is a reading device. This device evaluates and saves the received code information so that the object/person carrying the transponder can be identified.
A procedure that restores the chip card to a clearly defined initial state. In a cold reset, the supply voltage is turned off and on again. A warm reset is carried out using a signal on the reset line to the chip card, and the supply voltage remains unaffected.
Another word for test case result. It is an overview of the test case and the test environment. The most important information being the conformance requirements and results as well as the individual steps of the test procedure including results. The report can be printed, saved, and exported in various formats (for example, PDF).
A tamper-resistant platform (typically a one chip secure micro-controller) capable of securely hosting applications and their confidential and cryptographic data (for example, key management) in accordance with the rules and security requirements set forth by a set of well-identified trusted authorities.
There are three different form factors of secure elements: UICC, embedded SE, and micro-SD. Both the UICC and micro-SD are removable. Each form factor links to a different business implementation and satisfies a different market need.
Protocol that allows an application on an NFC-enabled device to exchange NFC Data Exchange Format (NDEF) messages with another NFC Forum device when operating in NFC Forum peer-to-peer mode. The protocol makes use of the Logical Link Control (LLC) protocol connection-oriented transport mode to provide a reliable data exchange.
A specification for a single-wire connection between the SIM card and an NFC chip in a cell phone. SWP is an interface between CLF and UICC. It is a contact-based protocol which is used for contactless communication. C6 pin of UICC is connected to CLF for SWP support. It is a bit-oriented full-duplex protocol which means that simultaneous transmission and reception are possible. CLF acts as a master and UICC as a slave. CLF provides the UICC with energy, a transmission clock, data, and signal for bus management. The data to be transmitted is represented by the binary states of voltage and current on the single wire.
Another word for chip card or ICC. It is any pocket-sized card with embedded integrated circuits. Smart cards are usually made of plastic. Smart cards can provide identification, authentication, data storage, and application processing. Smart cards may provide strong security authentication for single sign-on within large organizations.
Often abbreviated as ’spec’, refers to an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service.
In ISO/IEC 7816-3, it is assumed that the start bit begins with the first falling edge after a reset or after a bit sequence. If the bit following this edge has been identified by the bit sampling process as a low bit, it is indeed a start bit and the bit sequence following afterwards is evaluated. If the bit sampling results in a high bit, the next falling edge after the sampling time point is considered as the starting point of the next bit. A check is then performed to ascertain whether this is a start bit.
An error will only be signaled if the bit sampling discovers a low bit and the transfer direction of this bit is not the same as the transfer direction of the byte.
A SIM circuit is embedded into a removable plastic card. This plastic card is called a ’SIM card’ and can be transferred between different mobile devices. A SIM card follows certain smart card standards. SIM cards were first made the same size as a credit card (85.60 mm × 53.98 mm × 0.76 mm = 1FF (1st form factor)). The development of physically smaller mobile devices prompted the development of smaller SIM cards where the quantity of card surrounding the integrated circuit is reduced. As the SIM used to be the dominating application on these types of smart cards, even nowadays, the card (hardware) itself is often called SIM, too.
An external interface that synchronizes COMPRION's contactless devices allowing synchronous monitoring of the complete NFC communication chain between a smart card and a contactless reader. Contact-based SWP signals and the contactless ISO/IEC 14443 interface signals are recorded in one single file with the same time base and are shown together in COMPRION test software.
There are two standardized data exchange protocols defined in ISO/IEC 7816-3 for the communication between a smart card and a terminal: the byte-oriented half-duplex transmission protocol T=0 and the block-oriented half-duplex protocol T=1. The character-oriented T=0 protocol is very simple constructed and has a low memory capacity (about 300 bytes). The block-oriented T=1 protocol is a half-duplex protocol and works with error detection at the end of block. The memory requirement is about 1.100 bytes. The smart card and the terminal exchange data with the help of these protocols.
Technical operation that consists of the determination of one or more characteristics of a given product, process, or service according to a specified procedure.
The implementation of test specifications or parts of test specifications on COMPRION test systems.
Test Case API is the COMPRION test programming environment for card testing which lets users test technical vulnerabilities against internal specifications and corporate knowledge. This ensures maximum quality and saves its users such as card manufacturers and operators from cost-intensive card failure.
Test cases can be grouped together, e. g. according to topic to form test groups.
The comprehensive administration of test cases. This includes structuring in test plans and test groups as well as structured filing of test case results. As reference to an implementation under test (IUT) is required in order to create a test plan, IUT administration is also part of test plan management.
A description of how to test conformity to the product specifications, written at a level of abstraction which makes it suitable for standardization. A test specification describes the test environment. It contains precise test sequences in the form of test procedures incl. individual test steps and the appertaining conformance requirements as well as instructions how to check if these requirements are met. Often abbreviated ’test spec’.
Air interface used in UMTS telecommunications networks in Asia as an alternative to W-CDMA. It was developed by the China Academy of Telecommunications Technology in collaboration with Datang and Siemens to be accepted by the IT as one of the five IMT-2000 standards.
TD-SCDMA is an option for those operators who want to move from a 2G to a 3G network. Besides data transmission at speeds up to 2 Mbps, it supports circuit-switched data, such as speech and video and packet-switched data from the Internet.
Software module that converts binary coded commands on application level into a human readable format.
Another word for the smart card used in mobile terminals in GSM and UMTS networks. The UICC ensures the integrity and security of all kinds of personal data. In a GSM network, the UICC contains a SIM application and in a UMTS network it is the USIM application. In a CDMA network, the UICC contains a CSIM application, in addition to 3GPP USIM and SIM applications. A card with all 3 features is called R-UIM. Thus, the R-UIM card can be inserted into CDMA, GSM, or UMTS handsets, and will work in all three cases.
Several applications (SIM, USIM, CSIM, etc.) make it possible to give access to several networks with the same card.
A third-generation mobile cellular system for networks based on the GSM standard. Developed and maintained by the 3GPP, UMTS is a component of the International Telecommunications Union IMT-2000 standard set and compares with the CDMA 2000 standard set for networks based on the competing cdmaOne/CDMA One technology. UMTS uses W-CDMA radio access technology to offer greater spectral efficiency and bandwidth to mobile network operators.
A container for subscriber information, UMTS authentication information and provides storage space for text messages and phone book contacts.
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